Sunday, May 20, 2012

Fabrice Monteiro's Amazing Images of Brown. Fugitive Slaves In Slave Torture Devices

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

"Brown. Fugitive Slave," is an article published in his newsletter Africultures is an evocation of runaways through the eyes of Fabrice Monteiro. An article that is timely to commemorate the 163 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Guadeloupe, 27 May 2011 .

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

"Maroon" is a term borrowed from the Spanish "cimarron," meaning "living on the peaks."

It comes from a word "Arawak" defining domestic animals returned to the wild, and by extension, runaway slaves. The "Maroon" was a terrible threat to the colonial system, they were likely to provoke a civil war at any time. Fugitive slaves were monitored continuously and the sentences at the slightest deviation were particularly severe, they had to make an impression.

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

Slaves who tried to escape suffering the punishment described by the law then they were made to wear a heavy iron necklace with long stems, which had the function to hang in the brush and hamper any escape. In the same spirit, they existed in shackles bells, can hear every movement of the slave. The slave who dared to speak a bit to his master suffered the punishment of the Iron Mask. Similarly, during the harvest of sugarcane, were put in iron masks to hungry and thirsty slaves to prevent them from tasting or eating the cane.

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

During childhood in Benin, Fabrice Monteiro is marked by the cartoon "The Passengers of the Wind" of Bud Francis. Part of the adventure takes place in Ouidah, Benin, home village of his father's family. He is fascinated by the realism of images, it recognizes the scene drawn, the faces are familiar to him. It is in these pages he discovered these strange necklaces worn by some slaves to keep them from escaping. His father tells him the story of his family and why he wears a name like many other Portuguese Benin. His ancestor was named Ayedabo Adagoun Odo, his native Nigeria. He is enslaved by the Portuguese and sent to Brazil. He returned to Benin years later, freed by the name of Pedro Monteiro.

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

Sensitive to the issue of the slave trade and the role of this small village on the coast of Benin, Fabrice decides to explore the subject photographically to contribute to the memory of slavery. From the * CODE BLACK, lithographs and of the few original photos of slaves, Fabrice plans reconstructs five models of barriers used to punish or deter the slaves of their escape. It is from these plans that two young blacksmiths Benin reproduce barriers staged in this photographic series. To obtain an effect of chiaroscuro, he chose a modern approach to treatment of light. He designed a black box, allowing a mobile studio to meet its models through the streets of Ouidah.

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Brown Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

* The BLACK CODE was developed by the French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1616 - 1683) and promulgated in March 1685 by Louis XIV. [source: Fabrice Monteiro ( Article published by Africultures on 05/05/2011)]

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

"Marrons. Les esclaves fugitifs" (Runaway Fugitive Slaves) photographed by Fabrice Monteiro

RON'S COMMENTS:  Yes, these powerful images are disturbing.  It reminds us that human beings sit at the forefront of ALL enslavement.  The state-sponsored institutionalization of human trafficking and bondage for profit involves human beings.  Millions upon millions of nameless, faceless people who toiled for the enrichment of plutocrats, merchants, kings, queens, aristocrats, planters, shipbuilders, bankers, insurance brokers, shareholders and the like.  They were never paid, never thanked, even after emancipation never made whole.  I honor their spirit of survival.  

This small blog tries to offer a space to historically discuss and make sense of their inhuman bondage.  


  1. My heart aches seeing these people having those metals on their neck :<

    1. Yes, I totally agree with your statement.

      Fabrice Monteiro's photographs offers powerfully haunting images that humanizes the torment and pain of enslaved human beings.

      Since I'm going to be traveling for the next week or so, I won't be able to post any new items on this blog for a little while. Several months ago, I serendipitously ran across Fabrice Monteiro's photographs. I've been trying to research them, but unfortunately the only written works available seem to be written in French. That being said, the images are strong enough to hold their own without interpretation or analysis.

      Thanks for your thoughtful comments, keep reading the blog. You'll be confronted by disquieting images from time to time, but it's really difficult to draw a smiley face around institutionalized enslavement.

      --Ron Edwards, US Slave Blog

    2. Mine as well...We've come so far and yet people still are killing instead of loving one another...the most important commandment God said is "Love."

    3. Ron said...."Millions upon millions of nameless, faceless people who toiled for the enrichment of plutocrats, merchants, kings, queens, aristocrats, planters, shipbuilders, bankers, insurance brokers, shareholders and the like. They were never paid, never thanked, even after emancipation never made whole. I honor their spirit of survival."


    4. i like slaves...:)

    5. suck my penis

  2. A bold collection of photographs I think a lot of people would rather these be forgotten; America being the 'Land of The Free.' I utterly detest the notion that African Americans should be thankful for their freedom and it infuriates me when White Americans spew that garbage out... Only an aggressor would hold that stance.

    Great blog, sorry if I was ranting somewhat... I've been researching the Olympics/British Empire/Aboriginal Persecution... Living in the West you can soon be fooled into forgetting the horrible acts committed against humanity aren't exclusive to Arab nations..

    Hope your travels went well my friend!

  3. All Americans should be thankful for their freedom. As a descendant of cival war veterans who fought for the freedom of slaves, it concerns me to see comments like the above.

    We need to learn from our shared history and appreciate each other and acknowledge how the past affects us even today. How many hundreds of years will it take for Americans to get beyond defining themselves by their race?

    1. You said: {{All Americans should be thankful for their freedom.}}

      You're right. The USA has been an unfree nation, longer than it has been a free one. Unfortunately we tend to forget the level of unfree labor, in both scale and scope that built our nation. Africans weren't the only unfree labor in the land either ... in 1619 FOUR different people stood on the auction blocks of Jamestown -- African slaves, White English women (Virginia tobacco brides who were auctioned for 120 pounds of tobacco), Irish/English/Scottish/Welsh indentured servants (white slaves), and American Indians (sold to the colonies like Bermuda, Bahamas, and Barbados) ... we just seem to remember only the LAST slaves, not the plethora of unfree labor that toiled the land ... unthanked, unacknowledged, unremembered, unpaid and discarded in the dust bin of history.

      {{As a descendant of cival war veterans who fought for the freedom of slaves, it concerns me to see comments like the above.}}

      It took a mighty war to rid this country of a mighty crime. Over 600,000 soldiers were killed, countless others were wounded who lived with morphine addictions (since that was the one of the few painkillers available). The 180,000 black troops weren't even invited nor acknowledged in 1913 when President Woodrow Wilson presided over the 50th reunion of Civil War Vets in Gettysburg.

      The freed slaves DID NOT forget the Union soldiers who fought for their freedom. In fact, they started the first Memorial Day in the USA to commemorate their sacrifice. If you're unaware of this piece of American History take a look at the following posts on this subject:

      It's not common knowledge, that's why this blog is relevant, because it aims to EDUCATE. We do our nation a disservice by not knowing the full story of our shared history.

      You said: {{We need to learn from our shared history and appreciate each other and acknowledge how the past affects us even today.}}

      I agree. Our history is absolutely fascinating! It should not be whitewashed, muted and sanitized. We need to know the fullness of the story. Much like the Civil War, we rarely speak of the population collapse of the civilians who lived in the midst of a War Zone. The dead men, women and children who were non-military thus not counted among the Civil War dead or the slaves who were not represented by ANY GOVERNMENT that died from disease (small pox ran rampant in the war zones), starvation, artillery fire, etc. Yes, war was indeed Hell.

      You said: {{How many hundreds of years will it take for Americans to get beyond defining themselves by their race?}}

      God only knows. But, thanks for your comments. Keep reading this blog, you may discover more American history.

      -- Ron Edwards, US Slave Blog

    2. the civil war had nothing to do with freeing black slaves because the north felt bad about how they were being treated, its simply came down to what it always comes down to with the white man... money.

    3. As if only white men are greedy and ruthless when it come to money.

    4. @Ron... This is one of many false narratives and false equivolancies - The tobacco payment was intended to cover the cost of the woman's passage to Virginia and is why the Jamestown brides are sometimes referred to as “tobacco wives.” It is also why the women are frequently accused of having been sold.Aug 31, 2016

      The Mail-Order Brides of Jamestown, Virginia - The Atlantic

  4. That comment (Nov. 7 2012, Anonymous) comes across as an attempt to sidestep the reality of slavery. I encounter this attitude in the Bible Belt all the time. It must be culturally tolerated there; I find it offensive.

    1. I really didn't see that as an attempt to sidestep the reality of slavery. It happened. However, it IS time to move on. Pictures like these should help us work to prevent it from ever happening again, but it is not fair when blanket statements of any race or culture are used. We can't do anything about the past, but we can use the past to help us prevent atrocities in the future. We should ALL be thankful for our freedom. The white founding fathers of this country were willing to die and give up their fortunes for their freedom. The slaves were willing to die attempting to escape to their freedom. We ALL want to be free. If you look back in all of history, it is the norm of all conquering people to make slaves of the conquered or weak. We must all watch and learn the signs so that we may all remain free. In the meantime - be thankful that you are free.

      On another note, I think all of history should be taught with primary documents and original photos and artwork - keeping in mind that all are made by a person with a point of view. (another teachable moment in itself)

    2. "The white founding fathers of this country were willing to die and give up their fortunes for their freedom."

      Nope: Many of the white founding fathers owned slaves and slave plantations and their fortunes, and that of their white contemporaries, were invested in the slave trade. Without the slave trade, they wouldn't have become rich and powerful and had the luxury of debating about freedom and liberty. The founding fathers did not even mention people of color in the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of the United States.

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  42. Who sold the slaves in Africa?

  43. WoW . . .Talk about a hijacked BLOG!!!

  44. These are excruciating, revelatory photos, by far the most graphic and terrifying I've seen in connection with slavery. I hadn't realized such photos existed, nor have I ever seen or heard about anything like the various "devices" shown here.

    The following poem, from the book Both Sides of the Niger,by Andrew Kaufman is based in part on time the author spent visiting Ouidah, including the Point of No Return for slaves being shipped to the americas. Despite the title and first page, this poem is mainly about the slaves and the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

    "The French Military Cemetery of Ouidah, Benin"

    Each bronze plaque
    is set in a bed
    of light--

    brown gravel.
    Each lies in a frame
    of white-

    washed cement.
    Two-meter high walls
    guard the graves

    from view.
    Their whitewash,
    on which I steadied

    the camera
    to take the photo
    from which I write,

    is clean
    as the sun.
    At the head

    of each grave
    a bronze cross

    five inches
    in stunted

    On a dais
    of gravel
    set off by a hedgerow,

    a frigate captain's
    pyramid-shaped tomb
    embossed with an anchor
    stands over
    the meticulously spaced
    rows and files.

    The sand
    is swept
    from the graves.

    The leaves
    are swept
    to a corner.

    Six dead even
    rows of eight
    graves each

    are set in the colonialist's
    symmetry and rage
    for order,

    so different
    from the African

    in the forests,
    the overgrown
    raw cement,

    some graves
    without stones,
    some stones

    without names,
    some tombs broken
    and vacant--

    so different
    from Ouidah's largest graveyard,
    the sea,
    on which most slaves
    sold here
    died in transport,

    in the holds
    of ships
    awaiting transport,

    the white of the waves,
    their markers
    and epitaphs,

    the white of the waves
    likewise as clean
    as the sun.

  45. Slavery still exists in America. Slavery is not yet illegal for prisoners or those 'convicted of a crime'. In other words, the government can still engage in slavery, and still does... while private citizens can not. Angola in Louisanna is an example, but in no way the only one. There are 2 million Americans in US prisons... probably about 50 or so prisons per state... (guesstimate?)

    Many kids would argue that school is slavery. They have to work without pay, against their will, in captivity, and have no say so whatsoever. Having done 12 years of school, I have to agree, it was a hellhole.

  46. This post deepens my consciousness of the fact that the present US and world education system is one system that is an indoctrination tool and brainwashing mechanism that has us all enslaved to ideas and practices, which are extremely non-human and anti-love. The education programs, which we all pay for and go through, entrap most of us (of all races) in destructive practices with one another and give us life experiences that are far less than what all races experienced before the Earth was overtaken by these concepts of "human labor control" and "anti-love." Therefore, it occurs to me, from my journey thus far, that we must re-educate ourselves and strengthen our belief in the eternal life of our spirits, so that even when we are killed physically, we can increase the numbers of enlightened ones who vote, in the spiritual realm, for a truly humane Earth. Let us examine our own hearts and actions daily and grow a new consciousness of love and love of peaceful co-existence starting where we are.

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    heritage of Nepal. Nepal treks offers snow capped views of Nepal Himalaya, stunning landscape, totally different ethnic teams & their traditions, welcome, lush valleys through forests of bush, bamboo, oak, and hemlock, visiting one or 2 villages to next trekking destination. Nepal isn't merely walking hiking sooner or later when another, it's rather a gradual means of experiencing of Nepal's diversity in terms of earth science, people, faith and a large vary of culture. Shiva Excursion is Local Trekking Agency in Nepal may be each day hike to nduce to the highest on a mountain or a ridge for the spectacular views of mountain chain peaks or it may be a hiking for a month passing through villages within the shadow of lofty snow peaks, valleys, notch experiencing wealthy culture, custom and also the impressive views of the Himalaya in Asian nation. the target of Trekking in Nepal isn't simply the actual destination, however the journey itself. You travel at a modest pace, observant nature, rural communities, and spectacular mountain panoramas whereas you're trekking in Himalaya . Shiva Excursion old trekking guide can lead for path finding an introduction to the native individuals, culture, faith and mode. Under Nepal Government License holder Trekking Company in Nepal which is lead by Over 20 Years Trekking and Tour Operation Highly Recommend Everest Base Camp Trek and Annapurna Base Camp Trek. Because these Trip are most Popular and Challenging and top Destination in Nepal. Most of the Adventure, Moderate, and Easy hiking and Hard Passes Organized in Nepal. not that much enough some of Top Peak Climbing as Island Peak Climbing, Mera Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak and Many others real adventure path of Nepal. In Nepal More then 3000 threkking Agencies and all are competion for the business sector. Some one selling cheapest and some one selling top and quality service. those Agencies as over 30% are fake travel dealing.

  53. Why Trekking in Nepal Nepal?, a land of high hills, mountains, raging rivers and verdant deep jungles of Terai & its rich lifestyle makes one of the most sought locations inside the map of the world. a destination for all season as it's miles one of the most numerous and varied international locations on this planet a unique us of a nestled inside the excellent snow capped variety is some other advent of the mom earth and it embraces worlds' 8 highest peaks from mt.everest, mt.kanchenjonga, mt.lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu to Annapurna massive. nepal is likewise the beginning location of Buddha (light of Asia). The Buna Treks is Local Base Under Nepal Government Trekking Agency in Nepal. blessed with wealthy nature, the brilliant Himalayan in Nepal range stretches from the far north-west to the way east where the worlds highest 8th eight-thousanders are in Nepal. nepal gives a enthralling adventure with enough time to wonder the encompassing beautiful landscapes and immerse with its warm human beings, imparting you full of range and enchantment from the low lands of Gangetic plains and its verdant dense jungle where the endangered species of Royal Bengal tigers and the one-horned rhinoceros roam, to the mythical yak and yeti trail to the adventure and leisure tourism was hooked up in view that late 1960 and 70’s quality travel & trekking enterprise have mushroomed by using a tourism professionals Nepalese, and were leading countless of adventure trips in the course of Himalaya consisting of rafting, mountain climbing also organize adventure trekking, and entertainment trips which includes tailor-made itineraries for own family, college companies and company executives. Many of Trekking Company in Nepal are not perfect trip dealing, they have not enough Experienced. Trekking in Nepal, Nepal is domestic to community of trails also known as the amazing Himalaya trails, an extensive trail gadget that covers Nepal from humble and Darchula within the west to Kanchenjunga in the east. the range of Trekking in Nepal cannot be located in any other location of the world. in fact, the lowest factor in Nepal is fifty-nine m above sea-level inside the terai location even as the very best point is Everest, eight,848 m above sea-level, the two factors are, in a direct line, most effective two hundred kilometers aside. the majority of visitors to Nepal are available through the Tribhuvan international airport in Kathmandu. it's far in Kathmandu that trekkers want to accumulate their permits and other documentation, both from a trekking agent or from the best places of work. those files will be checked along the hiking route. for people with little time to spend in Nepal, there are half of-day hikes from Kathmandu to witness breathtaking Himalayan Trekking in Nepal perspectives in any other case trek for weeks over stunning tough mountain passes. as much as the mid-1960s just a few trekkers had generally visited Nepal and lower back then as part of corporations of excursion fans. the various huge expeditions of the day recommended trekkers to join up in an try to help balance the investment.


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  55. The Manaslu trekking is one of the best trekking destination in the western part of Nepal Kathmandu. The Manaslu Tsum valley trek and Manaslu area is restricted for the foreigner if you want to travel in your once life you should buy special permit for the Manaslu trek. It is pretty expensive but after enter this area then you will feel wow this is the one of the real life adventure and real local culture you could get a mix tradition. Here if you want a travel normally you should more than two people with a guide as if you hire porter that is your choice. The Manaslu trek is start from Soti-khola which is reach after 7/8 hours drive from Kathmandu first day following Trisuli river then the end Budigandaki river viewing agriculture platform and tradition local houses and the lot of green hilly region jungle. This trek normally take 14 days if include Tsum valley will be more days. The Manaslu area is locally base culture and old traditional ethnic group people living area in the Nepal. All the trekking trial is follow Budi –Gundaki river till top of the Manalsu Larke which is (5106m) above the sea level most challenging all of you those travel while you are doing there.

    After the top is going downhill which is long way down inter the Annapurna Region. the manalsu circuit trek is finish Dharapani where is last check point for the special permit some one walk till Tall then from there can drive to Besi Shar and to Kathmandu any kind of drive luxury or any kind of bus. This is trekking route you will see specifically view of top of the high mount Manalsu lot of the other specutular mountain view so the people uphold the trekking route to doing but the most of people feel on them anxious due to high elevation. When you doing this manalsu Larke pass trek you should keep positively of course everyone can success trip Everest Trekking Routes help 100% trip success so kindly join us team work with ETR

    Everest Trekking Routes Pvt. Ltd.
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  56. from reading this air my knowledge has increased thank you very much.

  57. 14 Days Manaslu Circuit Trek high light trekking route in Manaslu Trekking Packages, and magical beaten track of hidden Valley Manaslu Larke La Pass 5150m. After Annapurna Circuit Trekking Most of Trekkers are thinking about the round Manaslu Trekking. The Manaslu Circuit Trek is restricted area of Special Trekking Path in Nepal and day by day Trekkers Demand increased and also develops lodge accommodation and foods. There is some option if some of trekkers has more holidays and want to see nicer Himalayan tropical villages Monastery and Trans Himalayan people they can select Manslu Tsum Valley Trek. That can make both destination combined Tsum Valley and Manaslu Base Cam with Lark La Pass. The Manaslu Trekking is little more expensive than others Trekking Routes, Because those trekkers who are interest to go Round Manslu Larke la pass or Manaslu Tsum Valley they have to buy four type of Trekking Permits as Manaslu conservation area of Project (MCAP), Manaslu Restricted Permit, Tsum Valley Restricted Permit and Annapurna Conservation Area of Project (ACAP).
    Everest Trekking Routes has Professional Mountain Guide Team works with all Expert Local Porters those who are real typical himalayan people. our Expert Trekking Guide has well train and Best Packages Selling Trekking in Nepal. and now Highly Popular Manaslu Trekking which is short and suitable trip in Nepal.
    14 Days Manaslu Circuit Trek Start from Kathmandu to Arughat to Sotikhola by Public bus or Jeep and Trek to Machhakhola, Jagat, Filim, Deng, Namrung, Lho, Sama Gaun, Samdo, Larke La Pass, Bhimtang, Gho, Tilje, Dharapani and Drive to Besi sahar to Kathmandu. During this trip can get amazing Himalayan flavor with outstanding white Himalayan scenery which of eight top high peak Manaslu Expedition and Ganesh Himal, Singi Himal, Annapurna II, Annapurna IIII, gangapurna, Lamjung and Many Others Trekking Peaks. Everest Trekking Routes Selling 14 Days Manaslu Circuit Trek full board Packages Kathmandu to Kathmandu. If anyone interest can contact us directly thank you.

  58. Namaste Dear Valuables Trekkers and Climber Well, Adventure Everest Team is Mainly Organized Peak Climbing and Everest Expedition in Nepal and also those where are most popular Trekking Route as well. The Basically Everest base camp Trek, Everest Chola Pass Trek and Gokyo LakeTrek, Everest Three pass trek, Phaplu to Everest Base Camp and Everest Panorama Trek. These trip are most popular and Best Hiking in Nepal. the Trip start from lukla to Lukla or phaplu to all the way up everest base camp return to lukla fly back to Kathmandu.
    Adventure Everest Team is local base and Under Nepal government license holder Trekking Agency in Nepal which is more the 20 Years Experienced in this tourism industry. Base Full Board Packages Selling and Mostly Organized Peak Climbing Expedition in nepal. The Island Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak Climbing, Ramdung Peak Climbing, Amadablam Expedition in nepal. there are not that lead to Adventure type of Expedition. we do have Mt Everest Expedition, Lhotse Expedition, Pumori Expedition, Nuptse Expedition, Barutse Expedition and Many Others Expedition in Nepal. these all trip are east part of Nepal. Mr Kul Bahadur Tamang run by Local Trekking Company in Nepal. as Professional team and Most of the Climbing guide are already maded Everest Expedition and over 8000 meters. and license holder Mountain Guide. Generarly Mr Kul run Hotel in Dingboche Good luck make happy to all of Clients and combine both Trekking Company in Nepal. The main aim is how to make happy all of valuable clients those who are travelling in Nepal. Secondary trip selling in Annapurna Region which is most popular trip Annapurna Base Camp Trek, mardi himal trek, Annapurna Circuit trek, Manaslu Circuit Trek, manaslu Tsum Valley Trek, Upper Mustang Trek, Kanchenjunga Trek, Upper Dolpo trek and Rara Lake Trek. these trip is South Part of Nepal. Chulu West peak Climbing and Chulu East Peak Climbing is very general and Popular Trekking Peak Climbing in Nepal.

  59. Namaste Dear Visitor, we are web design and development team of Ganesh Himal Technology Web Designing Company in Nepal. we are base Location at khusibu, Kathmandu Nepal. Nepal Under Government License holder Web Development Company in Kathmandu. So we start our business since 2008 to till as regular service to Web Designing, Web Development, Domain Registration, Web hosting, Content Writing and SEO Services for Trekking Agency, Hotel, Main Power, Collage, Consultancy, NGO and INGO many others sector. We have a Professional Team of Web Designer and Developer over 12 Years of hard work with the latest technology to development. not only competition local The the market we have the best services worldwide. which is more popular and new technology. So Ganesh Himal Technology serviceWeb Designing in Nepal. and Web Development in Nepal. and also Content writing in Nepal. and Domain registration, Web Hosting in Nepal. Mobile App Development as Android and IOS. we are using to Getaway Payment system E-commerce Solution for Online Payment. So if anyone interest to Web Design in Nepal. Please, no need hesitate to talk and enquiry. this is our official Cell no:+977-9843467921 and Email: and Website:

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