Sunday, July 17, 2011

Panama Canal

From Reuters, "Panama Canal's Black Builders Await Due Credit," by Tim Gaynor: Panama City (Reuters) - In the year when the United States is to cede control of the Panama Canal to Panama, the waterway's governing body has named a tugboat for its longest serving and most reliable employee.
Tugboat Cecil F. Haynes on the Panama Canal

But for Cecil Haynes, 86, a soft-spoken Panamanian of West Indian descent, it is more than just a personal tribute. It is long-awaited recognition of the role played by black labor in the canal's history.

"West Indians made a very valuable contribution to the canal," he said, sitting in the offices where he has worked since joining the commission in 1928. "But we never got the credit we deserved."

Between 1904 and the canal's completion on the eve of the First World War, more than 25,000 West Indians heeded U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's call to "make the dirt fly."

As the Dec. 31 transition to Panamanian control looms, Haynes hopes the thousands of black workers who labored to build the canal will finally be honored alongside its white engineers.

Panamanian West Indian Museum

Housed in a one-room former colonial church in Panama City's rundown Calidonia district, the Panamanian West Indian Museum has championed the memory of the canal's black work force since the museum opened in 1981.

"The Americans were known for their engineering skill," said Melva Lowe Goodin, the museum's president. "But it was the West Indians who gave the sweat and the blood."

Black Labor On A White Canal


For the black workers from Barbados, Jamaica and Martinique who made up two-thirds of the canal's labor force, the work was hard, dangerous and indifferently paid.

"My father came here in 1904 to dig the ditch. Back then it was just jungle and mosquitoes," Haynes recalled with a smile.

White employees of the Canal Commission were given comfortable housing, while many black workers lived in railway boxcars or shacks in the forests bordering the work site.

In the early years, malaria and yellow fever were rife and accidents were frequent. Records at the wooden museum show that of 5,600 employees killed by disease and accidents between 1904 and the project's completion 10 years later, 4,500 were black.


Particularly hazardous were the vast excavations at Culebra Cut, a 9-mile(5.6-km)-long navigation channel blasted through the cordillera, the range that divides Panama, with dynamite.

Work crews were vulnerable to landslides as they dug the unstable slopes of the cut and accidents with dynamite were common. An explosion in 1908 killed 23 workers and injured 40.


With tragic irony, an action by the Canal Commission intended to improve public health put workers in even greater danger from landslides and explosions.

"Many workers went deaf as a side effect of the heavy doses of quinine they were required to take to treat malaria," Lowe Goodin said. "They just didn't hear the shouted warnings to get out of the way."

Canal Zone Caste SystemMore than seven decades after drawing his first paycheck, Haynes recalls the two-tier pay system that led to segregation of white and black workers in the U.S.-controlled Canal Zone.

"While white workers were paid on the gold roll, in U.S. dollars, we were all paid on the silver roll in local currency," he said.

Silver roll employees had to drink at separate drinking fountains and stand at different lines in the post office under what one observer called the "Canal Zone caste system."
The Canal Zone, a 10-mile(16-km)-wide security strip the length of the waterway, was run under U.S. federal laws, with its own court system and police force, until it reverted to Panamanian control in 1979.

"You couldn't go into gold roll shops," Haynes said. "And after working hours you couldn't be seen in the zone. You would be arrested for loitering or trespassing."

Black workers were classed as "helpers" although they might be qualified in a range of canal-related trades and were paid at half the rate of white co-workers.


American Experience The Panama Canal

Watch the full episode. See more American Experience.

9 comments:

  1. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this post and also the rest of the site
    is very good.

    my blog post: filing bankruptcy in florida

    ReplyDelete
  2. I'm really glad that I had the opportunity to express my opinion with regard to that company's شركة كشف تسربات المياه I want to talk about features and also defects , the company started talking it represents شركة تنظيف بالرياض Wani you select your site in order to do I publish those words which Venh group technicians offer you شركة تنظيف بالرياض and you want to know what they're talking about in detail Flakm access to those شركة تنظيف بمكة thank you for your approval request for the deployment Thread

    ReplyDelete
  3. that you have written realities and additionally sees in such an excellent path with so much idea.
    Escorts Services in Kolkata
    Kolkata Escorts
    Escorts in Kolkata

    ReplyDelete
  4. Annapurna Base Camp Trek most likely the simplest legendary and classical treks within the world offers to breathe stopping Mountain read, provide a chance to expertise the everyday Nepali village, native folks and their method of living ancient life in Himalaya of Kingdom of Nepal. The Annapurna Base Camp route goes passing through spectacular and tranquil landscapes, charming Gurung and Magar villages, lush inexperienced bush, bamboo and alpine forests to the trip’s last and final destination, Annapurna Base Camp at the peak of 4130m (13546ft.)Natural and Classic Annapurna Base Camp Trek, The path is equally a delight for natural experiences. On the third day of our trekking, we tend to leave our baggage in building at Ghorepani for Poon Hill excursion before dawn to catch the spectacular sunrise. Poon Hill is one in all the simplest read points during this trek for a sunrise view and mountain view. Mount Dhaulagiri, the Annapurna vary and Mount Machhapuchhre (Fishtail Mountain) to the northern half and also the Butterfly Peaks within the way western half are all visible from atop Poon Hill. (SHOULD YOU SAY one thing concerning WHAT YOU SEE after you reach basic principle, during this part?). Finding yourself within the base large Annapurna I (8091m) with 360 degrees Mountain read is topping lovely that's on the far side your imagination that's associate lingering period of time mountain vacation expertise in the Kingdom of Nepal. There is a natural outpouring close to Jhinu Danda, you'll cleanse yourself spiritually in natural hot springs with bathing areas within the lap of the mountains. Locals believe that the waters have a healing quality that eases away your aches and pains. The locals encounter in Annapurna Base Camp Route are combine ethnic groups; there are Brahmans and Chhetris in lower elevations and Mongoloid range of mountains folks in Himalaya. largely there are Gurung and Magar folks within the space noted for Gurkha regiment. If you'd wish to explore additional cultural and ancient heritages in Himalaya then wild Excursion counsel you to trek to Langtang, Manaslu, and mountain peak region. however little doubt that Annapurna is that the best for scenery as some 55000 folks trek there per annum.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Everest Base Camp Trek is one of those journeys that create your vacation dreams return true. Hiking on the legendary foothills just under the mighty Mount Everest 8848m with exciting views of the master peaks will solely be found within the Everest Region. This celebrated trek is thought worldwide for its trailblazing routes & the landscapes speak to your senses. On this trip you furthermore Mera peak out at the celebrated Kala Patthar (5,600m/18,373ft) read purpose for a few grand direct views of the very best mountain in the world. Everest Base CampTrek additionally includes different celebrated eight thousand peaks like Mt mountain peak (8,516m /27,940ft), Makalu (8,485m /27,838 ft) Cho-Oyu (8,201m /26,906ft). The culture of this specific space is of nice notebook stuff & interacting with the native of us puts a lot of zest into your venturesome journey as you walk through the Khumbu region of the Asian country. This legendary path could be a psychological thriller for top & wild hikers World Health Organization want the tread the methods wherever legends walked before on their thanks to conquering mountain peak, some did some didn’t however the Everest Base Camp Trek path keeps those legends alive for many trekkers World Health Organization head to the present region. The trip begins with a stirring mountain flight to Lukla, one among the world’s highest mountains; & as shortly as you set down at that altitude, the remainder is history. Your hike takes you to the favored village city of Namche, referred to as the ‘gateway to the Khumbu’’ & from there on you rehearse quiet monasteries with the acknowledge Sherpa of us World Health Organization inhabit this region & their culture is price noting. On the way, we have a tendency to visit the Sagarmatha parkland, home to some rare fauna & flora, this additionally wherever we have a tendency to adapt for a few time. We head deep into the Khumbu hiking into the forest of shrub, birch trees & pine, with colorful villages wherever we have a tendency to square measure sincerely welcome by the Sherpa community. we have a tendency to square measure pleasantly stunned to return across a hospital-based mostly in Khunde and health post at Pheriche that shows this region not solely cares for the locals however also are able to look out of trekkers World Health Organization have altitude issues. Doctors square measure invariably at the post for aid treatment. The Everest Base Camp Trek is arduous however varied teahouses square measure found on the paths providing smart grubbed to shelter from the generally harsh climate. Our trek culminates at base camp so we have a tendency to create a path for Namche as we have a tendency to hike back to Lukla to rendezvous for our flight to Katmandu. we have a tendency to add an additional contingency day for inclement weather which will delay flights. It’s recommended to be pretty acceptable to undertake this journey; you only want some smart hiking exercise before doing this trip. And Nepal Base Camp Treks can do the remainder to allow you AN action-packed odyssey of a period.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Trekking in Nepal is one in all the favored commercial enterprise activities in Nepal trekking is one in all the simplest means of experiencing the natural beauty and wealthy cultural
    heritage of Nepal. Nepal treks offers snow capped views of Nepal Himalaya, stunning landscape, totally different ethnic teams & their traditions, welcome, lush valleys through forests of bush, bamboo, oak, and hemlock, visiting one or 2 villages to next trekking destination. Nepal isn't merely walking hiking sooner or later when another, it's rather a gradual means of experiencing of Nepal's diversity in terms of earth science, people, faith and a large vary of culture. Shiva Excursion is Local Trekking Agency in Nepal may be each day hike to nduce to the highest on a mountain or a ridge for the spectacular views of mountain chain peaks or it may be a hiking for a month passing through villages within the shadow of lofty snow peaks, valleys, notch experiencing wealthy culture, custom and also the impressive views of the Himalaya in Asian nation. the target of Trekking in Nepal isn't simply the actual destination, however the journey itself. You travel at a modest pace, observant nature, rural communities, and spectacular mountain panoramas whereas you're trekking in Himalaya . Shiva Excursion old trekking guide can lead for path finding an introduction to the native individuals, culture, faith and mode. Under Nepal Government License holder Trekking Company in Nepal which is lead by Over 20 Years Trekking and Tour Operation Highly Recommend Everest Base Camp Trek and Annapurna Base Camp Trek. Because these Trip are most Popular and Challenging and top Destination in Nepal. Most of the Adventure, Moderate, and Easy hiking and Hard Passes Organized in Nepal. not that much enough some of Top Peak Climbing as Island Peak Climbing, Mera Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak and Many others real adventure path of Nepal. In Nepal More then 3000 threkking Agencies and all are competion for the business sector. Some one selling cheapest and some one selling top and quality service. those Agencies as over 30% are fake travel dealing.

    ReplyDelete

HOME

HOME
Click here to return to the US Slave Home Page