Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Slave Ship Jesus

Slave Ship Jesus Coat of Arms

Slavery is a stain on the history of the British Empire. The Anglo-Saxons kept slaves, but although serfdom survived for many years, slavery had all but gone from England by the 12th century. Certainly the earliest colonies, the West Indies and Virginia could not have survived without slaves.

The British were not the first Europeans in the slave trade. The Portuguese had established themselves as traders a century earlier.

Our story, here in the sixteenth century, centres on three voyages of John Hawkins. Hawkins was the first established English slave trader. Between 1562 and 1567 he made such profits so lucrative that he was supported by the Queen who showed her investment by donating two of her own ships, the Jesus of Lubeck and the Minion.

The pattern was consistent. Hawkins sailed for the west coast of Africa and, sometimes with the help of other African natives, kidnapped villagers. He would then cross the Atlantic and sell his cargo, or those who survived the voyage, to the Spanish. The slave trade was better business than plantations.


Sir John Hawkins

For Hawkins, the trade ended in 1567 when his fleet, which included a ship commanded by Francis Drake, took shelter from a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. The Spanish were also there. In the chaos and fight that followed, many of his men were killed. The Queen's Jesus of Lubeck was lost. Hawkins escaped in one ship and Drake in another. He'd lost 325 men on that voyage but it still showed a financial profit.

That skirmish between the Spanish and English ships was partly a turning point in the naval confrontation between the two nations; it continued for two decades and was only partially settled by the 1588 English Channel battle with the Spanish Armada. However, slavery continued after Hawkins and, although banned in England in 1772, it continued in the colonies until the 19th century. (source: BBC)


Slave Ship Jesus of Lubeck

JESUS OF LUBECK

The Jesus Of Lubeck was a German-built carrack of 700 tons displacement built around 1544 as a Hanseatic trading ship, before being bought by Henry VIII of England and converted to a warship. In 1564 she was leased as an armed slave-ship to Captain John Hawkins who used her until she was sunk during an engagement with the Spanish at San Juan de Ulloa in the Gulf of Mexico.

The Jesus Of Lubeck had four masts, the fore and main masts were square-rigged, the mizzens lateen rigged, carried a crew of 300 and was armed with 26 guns. (source: probertencyclopaedia.com

46 comments:

  1. Those Iron implements were there because of Cannibalism not religious folklore.

    ReplyDelete
  2. If to be free was truly what black folks sought, why did they not go to Belize as President Lincoln offered. Although it was a colony but it was a free colony not a slave colony.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Why do people say ignorant things then hide behind anonymous?

      Delete
    2. anonymous is a white supremacist will little intelligence, dummy your murderous ancestors can an invaded, raped killed and stole land fuck you and lincons BS

      Delete
    3. YO BRO,

      THE WHITE IRISH SUFFERED UNDER THE WHITE BRITISH FOR 800 YEARS:

      Muhammad Ali’s Irish Ancestry
      by Dick Eastman

      Despite America’s melting pot of nationalities, I don’t often hear of Irish ancestry when reading about Black American genealogy. However, history teaches us that many American Blacks have white, Indian, or other ancestry. Muhammad Ali’s ancestry includes Irish immigrants and freed blacks.

      An 1855 land survey of Ennis, a town in county Clare, Ireland, contains a reference to John Grady, who was renting a house in Turnpike Road in the center of the town. His rent payment was fifteen shillings a month. A few years later, his son Abe Grady immigrated to the United States.

      Also, around the year 1855, a man and a woman who were both freed slaves, originally from Liberia, purchased land in or around Duck Lick Creek, Logan, Kentucky. The two married, raised a family, and farmed the land. These free blacks went by the name, Morehead, the name of white slave owners of the area.

      Odessa Grady Clay, Cassius Clay's mother, was the great-granddaughter of the freed slave Tom Morehead and of John Grady of Ennis, whose son Abe had emigrated from Ireland to the United States.

      She named her son Cassius in honor of a famous Kentucky abolitionist of that time.

      When he changed his name to Muhammad Ali in 1964, the famous boxer remarked,

      "Why should I keep my white slavemaster's name visible and my black ancestors invisible, unknown, unhonored?"

      (HE SHOULD HAVE CALLED HIMSELF ABE GRADY IV)

      You can read more about Muhammad Ali’s (Cassius Clay’s) ancestry at
      www.genealogy.com/famousfolks/muhammada/index.html and at

      www.nytimes.com/books/98/10/25/specials/ali-heritage.html.

      IRELAND'S GREATEST LEGEND?
      I've always thought there was something Irish about Muhammad Ali.
      Perhaps it was the way he talked ¬that verbal exuberance and earthy wit, combined with rootsy toughness. Now in a global exclusive with massive implications for Irish sporting history, the Irish Post has found proof that the boxing legend is indeed an Irishman!
      "Staff at the Clare Heritage Center at Corofin have discovered that the three-times world boxing champion's great grandfather was Abe Grady - who was born in the town of Ennis in the 1840s," the paper reveals.
      "According to genealogist Antoinette O'Brien the legendary boxer's great grandfather hailed from the Turnpike area of Ennis and emigrated to America in the 1860s from Cappa Harbour, near Kihrush in west Clare. Some time after arriving in the U.S., Mr. Grady married and African-American woman. Their son also married an African-American and one of the couple's children was Ali's mother Odessa Lee Grady. I understand that staff at Clare Heritage Center is now carefully scrutinizing the family trees of Jesse Owens, Olga Korbut and
      Mark Spitz. (The Catholic Herald, England, 2-22-02)

      ANCESTRY OF CASSIUS CLAY
      Clay began boxing at the age of 12 after his bicycle was stolen and the police officer he reported the theft to invited him to start training. He has thrown punches opposite many of the 20th century’s other boxing icons including Joe Frazier, Sonny Liston and George Foreman. Today he lives in Michigan with his wife Lonnie. Born Cassius Clay, Muhammad Ali is perhaps best known for his glib tongue and the controversy that surrounded him when he converted to the Muslim faith and changed his name to Muhammad Ali.

      1. Muhammad1 Ali (Cassius Marcellus2 Clay, Herman H.3, John4), son of Cassius Marcellus Clay and Odessa Grady, was born in Louisville, Jefferson, Kentucky 17 Jan 1942.

      2. Cassius Marcellus2 Clay (Herman H.3, John4) was born in Jefferson Co., Kentucky 11 Nov 1912. Cassius died 8 Feb 1990 in Jefferson Co., Kentucky, at 77 years of age.

      He married Odessa Grady. Odessa was born in Hopkins County, Kentucky 12 Feb 1917.(1) Odessa is the daughter of John L. Grady and Birdie Morehead.

      - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x - x

      Delete
  3. Belize WAS a SLAVE COLONY! It wasn't a sugar producing state like Haiti, Jamaica or Barbados. No, it was a mahogany exporting colony that used enslaved labor to deforest the land to export wood and timber. Again, this was uncompensated, unthanked, unfree enslaved labor.

    Why would President Abraham Lincoln want to deport the slaves of the United States to Belize, when they were on the Confederate side? It just doesn't make any sense. In fact, many of the Confederate soldiers fled to Belize after their defeat.

    Belize merchants became infamous for smuggling goods to the Confederates during the U.S. Civil War in the 1860's and for smuggling whisky to the U.S. during prohibition in the 1920's. by the 1930s the importance of U.S. trade rivaled that of the British.

    After the holidays, I'm going to post more information on Belize. Belize in NO WAY was free.

    In the 1860's, British settlers in Belize encouraged immigration from the U.S. Hundreds of Confederates came to Belize after the Civil War in search of land to develop. Few of the Confederates, however, stayed - most returned to the U.S. or moved on to Latin America. A group of Methodists from Mississippi did settle in the Toledo District in 1867 and established 12 sugar estates, but most were gone by 1910.

    Merry Christmas!

    --Ron Edwards, US Slave

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    Replies
    1. Great info....basicly...what will have to happen is the decendents of these slave masters can send us back and throw out the fake jews in Israel now...or wait for the war in America to force it to happen but kill many ppl off......many "blacks" cant afford to just pack up and go now due to lack of jobs and low pay...

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  4. and this is the truth.

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  5. I am unfortunately a descendant of John Hawkins and I am ashamed to say so.

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    Replies
    1. You are one of thousands of descendants of individuals who have profited from the slave trade and slave labor. The profits received (directly or indirectly) have given you all enormous advantages over the ex-slave. How can you make it right with your conscious and with your God?? I would submit that you cannot make it right because the damage is done and enormous beyond immediate repair. But do something within your sphere of possibility or span of authority...shame is not enough.

      Delete
    2. WHITE CARGO
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      —Publishers Weekly
      ”With information gleaned from contemporary letters, journals and court archives, White Cargo is packed with proof that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery were, for centuries, also inflicted on whites.”
      —Daily Mail
      ”An eye-opening and heart-rending story.”
      —The Times (London)
      White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain’s American colonies.
      In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London’s streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide “breeders” for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock.
      Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history.
      This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.
      More details
      White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America
      By Don Jordan, Michael Walsh
      Edition: illustrated
      Published by NYU Press, 2008
      ISBN 0814742963, 9780814742969
      320 pages

      Delete
  6. Don't be a shame just make his wrong doing, right.

    ReplyDelete
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  16. Always good to read comments from ignorant black racists who are so focused on the past while mooching off the teats of American Welfare and blaming everyone else for their problems; take responsibility of your life! The economic climate of today, lack of jobs, and decreased salaries has nothing to do with minority strife. Did you notice the leader of the free world is Black? Slavery is absolutely disgusting yet it is time to get over it and move on just like the rest of the world. Take all your entitlements and give back to the modern day slave; the Native American. Take your entitlements and give back to the original slave; the Jew. Take your entitlements and make the USA a better place instead of complaining about your past. Take your entitlements and enjoy your free education, your increased and unequal opportunities in business and the Military. Take your entitlements and eradicate the ignorant, hate mongering Black Islam plague spreading through our prison systems ... the same disgusting people who killed one of the most powerful leaders and role models the world has ever known, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Wake up!!!! How many Irish do you hear complain about their enslavement during the Dark History of America? How many Sicilians do you hear complain about their heritage as a Slave colony? The Jews were enslaved throughout time, long before the Cult of Jesus existed and a millennium before the Cult of Mohammad, and then slaughtered almost to extinction during the holocaust. The Jews are the original Monotheists! Do you see them reveling in their past and blaming everyone for their problems, no they lead almost every Fortune500 company in the US. It is not how you fall or when, it is how you stand up which is measure of a true Man or Woman. The face of God reflects us all for we are in his image, the more we accept our differences and mix our blood the closer to him/her we become. It all starts with standing up!

    -- Your sister descended from all walks of life.

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    Replies
    1. {{{Always good to read comments from ignorant black racists who are so focused on the past while mooching off the teats of American Welfare and blaming everyone else for their problems; take responsibility of your life! }}}

      I guess you just decided to pull down your pants to defaecate a pile of crap in the comment section. First, you don't appear to know much about history and yet you call the readers of this EDUCATIONAL BLOG, “ignorant,” “black,” and “racist.” What EVIDENCE do you have that the readers are “ignorant.” The topics, primary resources, scholarship, books and lectures on this blog represent a composite of scholarly research from some of the most acclaimed universities in North America and the United Kingdom. And let the truth be told, most of the scholars on slavery have been in recent years white (slavery scholars like Ira Berlin, Eric Foner, Douglas Blackmon, David Eltis, David Blight, Joesph Opla, etc.). Who is blaming whom, and for what?

      This is an EDUCATIONAL BLOG that offers historical context and historical evidence of the institution of slavery. I just focus the lens to show a clearer picture of the slavery industrial complex. Yes, I will focus on the past, that's what “history” is a study of the past – duh!

      By definition, investigative historical scholarship IS taking responsibility. I don't engage in facile soundbites, goofy conjecture, or whitewashed myths. No, this blog unearths the complex truths of our shared historical narrative.

      Now, my family has been in this nation for over 300 years, and we've never received a dime of welfare. Is welfare some sort of slavery reparation? That's news to me. I've never received one welfare check. Is there some kinda welfare check fund for the progeny of American slavery? Is there a welfare check with my name on it? Will I get back-pay for my ancestors 300 years of unpaid labor (adjusted for inflation, of course). Or are you just having some kinda mental episode that scapegoats ALL BLACKS for whatever whites self-aggrandizement grief complex you're feeling today.


      {{{The economic climate of today, lack of jobs, and decreased salaries has nothing to do with minority strife. }}}
      So, why do you add this bit of nonsense to your argument.


      {{{Did you notice the leader of the free world is Black? }}}
      Okay, President Obama is black. Yes, I have noticed. What is your point?


      {{{Slavery is absolutely disgusting yet it is time to get over it and move on just like the rest of the world.}}}

      Nope. The rest of the world doesn't act like some newborn child without any sense of history. What nation, people or place on this planet (past, present or future) negates their past. Why do black people have to pretend to be some sort of etch-a-sketch people – shake us up and we have our names changed every other generation or so (Negro, negroid, Afro-American, African American, colored, freedmen, freemen, slaves, free people of color, etc.) – shake us up again and we'll forget how and why we were stolen from Africa in the first place. We'll forget our unique immigration policy forged in shackles and chains in the hull of ships. We'll forget that we were declared to be “real estate” or “property” by the US Government and we were bought, sold, traded, inherited, killed, raped, maimed, branded, tortured and worked without compensation, remuneration, or gratification.

      Delete
    2. {{{ Take all your entitlements and give back to the modern day slave; the Native American. }}}

      WTF are you ranting about? The genocide of the Native American tribes wasn't Africa slicing and dicing up North America, South America and every island in between. This blog certainly has reported on the ethnic cleansing called Manifest Destiny. Also the enslavement of the Native American tribes. As well as the so called “civilized tribes” that enslaved blacks.

      This blog offers a number of posts with respect to the Native Americans (North American, Caribbean, and South American).

      I wish I had these so called “entitlements.” Perhaps the Department of Interiors' Indian
      Affairs could tell me exactly where they are and I'll open a casino and share my profits with the Native Americans. I don't have a problem with that.

      {{{Take your entitlements and give back to the original slave; the Jew. }}}

      Now, are the Jews a religion or a race? If so, then how did the Lehman Brothers (German Jews) profit from slave grown cotton in Alabama. They profited so much that the Lehman Brothers started the Cotton Exchange in New York City to sell slave-grown cotton. Or Levi Strauss manufactured blue jeans from slave-grown cotton and dyed that cotton in slave-grown indigo (for that lovely blue color).

      I try not to point fingers at religions with respect to slavery, since there isn't one with clean hands. All religions participated in the slavery industrial complex – Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Church of England, Islam, Quakers, Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Buddhists, Hindus, Pagans, Atheists, Puritans – I can point to a slave-owner, slave-trader, slave-broker, slave-monger in each and every religion.

      {{{Take your entitlements and make the USA a better place instead of complaining about your past. }}}

      Oops, I'm sorry, I guess you missed that slave-grown cotton was 80% of the GDP in the USA. If blacks were producing 80% of the nations wealth, how much more should we have done!

      {{{Take your entitlements and enjoy your free education, your increased and unequal opportunities in business and the Military. }}}

      Education isn't free, fool! We ALL pay property taxes for our education. Are you just barking mad or what. Furthermore, blacks have fought in each and every war from BEFORE the USA became the USA up until today. There has never been a battle that the US has fought that black men didn't also fight.

      Delete
    3. {{{Take your entitlements and eradicate the ignorant, hate mongering Black Islam plague spreading through our prison systems ... the same disgusting people who killed one of the most powerful leaders and role models the world has ever known, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Wake up!!!! }}}

      “Wake up!”? Really. Your claim that the black Muslims killed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is just flat out wrong. James Earl Ray killed Martin Luther King, Jr.. James Earl Ray was NOT BLACK, he was a white man. James Earl Ray was NOT A MUSLIM. He plead guilty to the murder of Martin Luther King, Jr.; he was convicted and sentenced to 99 years in jail; he died in prison serving out that sentence in 1998.

      I can't believe how you chastise black people for being ignorant and you just spew out one stupid historically inaccurate diatribe after another. Maybe, you should just Google the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. BEFORE you accuse anyone except white negrophobic extremist of that crime.

      {{{How many Irish do you hear complain about their enslavement during the Dark History of America?}}}

      You haven't read much history. The New York City Draft Riots that occurred DURING the Civil War, whereby Irish nationalist burned the city of New York and went on a killing spree of blacks. They even burnt and pillaged an orphanage for black children. They killed blacks and terrorized black orphans because they said that the US Government was being anti-Irish with the conscription (drafting) lottery.

      If you need a refresher course on this topic, watch “Gangs of New York”....or just Google “Draft Riots.”

      {{{How many Sicilians do you hear complain about their heritage as a Slave colony?

      I don't know the history of Sicily, this blog's focus is on slavery in the so called New World (North America, South America and the Caribbean Islands).

      {{{The Jews were enslaved throughout time, long before the Cult of Jesus existed and a millennium before the Cult of Mohammad, and then slaughtered almost to extinction during the holocaust. }}}

      Did the African Americans slaughter the Jews? No. I think it was more of the same type of white extremist that took-up the white man's burden.

      {{{The Jews are the original Monotheists! }}}

      Your point? This blog neither condemns nor condones ANY religion. You can believe in purple tooth fairies flying on rainbow colored unicorns for all I care.

      {{{Do you see them reveling in their past and blaming everyone for their problems, no they lead almost every Fortune500 company in the US. }}}

      On Sept. 20, 1945, three months after the end of World War II, Chaim Weizmann, on behalf of the Jewish Agency, submitted to the governments of the US, USSR, UK, and France, a memorandum demanding reparations, restitution, and indemnification due to the Jewish people from Germany for its involvement in the Holocaust.
      Germany’s postwar reparations program has become such a matter of fact that many Germans are not even aware that their country, after paying $89 billion in compensation mostly to Jewish victims of Nazi crimes over six decades, still meets regularly to revise and expand the guidelines for qualification. The aim is to reach as many of the tens of thousands of elderly survivors who have never received any form of support.

      The United States has provided Israel with $233.7 billion in aid ‏(after adjusting for inflation‏) since the state was formed in 1948 through the end of last year.

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    4. *standing on my feet clapping * I am so happy to see somebody stand up to one of these white extremists (who love to hide behind a computer desk) with real historical facts...my hats off to you...I hope there is more to come because I love what I'm seeing so far...

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    5. Lol I'm still trying to figure out what entitlements he's commenting about...

      Delete
    6. INDENTURED SERVANTS EXPERIENCES
      1600-1700

      BEFORE THE JOURNEY: "Many of the spirits [people who recruited indentured servants] haunted the London slums and those of Bristol and other seaports. It was not difficult to find hungry and thirsty victims who, over a dinner and much liquor, would sign anything before them. The spirit would then hustle his prey to his headquarters to be added to a waiting company of others, safely kept where they could not escape until a ship was ready for them. An easier way was to pick up a sleeping drunk from the gutter and put him aboard a vessel for America, where, with no indenture, he could be sold to his own disadvantage and with the American planter's gain. Children were valuable and could be enticed with candy to come along with a spirit. Sometimes they, and older people too, were seized by force."
      THE JOURNEY: The ocean journey to America usually took eight to twelve weeks. Indentured servants were packed into the ships tightly, often being held in the hold without a chance to get fresh air. "Every two weeks at sea the [indentured servant] passengers received an allowance of bread. One man and his wife, having eaten their bread in eight days, staggered before the captain and begged him to throw them overboard, for they would otherwise starve before the next bread day. The captain laughed in their faces, while the ship's mate, even more of a brute, gave them a bag of sand and told them to eat that. The couple did die before the next ration of bread, but the captain charged the other passengers for the bread the two would have eaten if they had survived."
      UPON ARRIVAL IN AMERICA: Some indentured servants had their contract of service worked out with waiting American colonists who would be their masters for four to seven years. Others, upon arrival, were bought and sold much in the same manner as slaves. An announcement in the Virginia Gazette read, "Just arrived at Leedstown, the Ship Justitia, with about one Hundred Healthy Servants, Men Women and Boys. . . . The Sale will commence on Tuesday the 2nd of April."
      TREATMENT BY THEIR MASTERS: Indentured servants had few rights. They could not vote. Without the permission of their masters, they were not allowed to marry, to leave their houses or travel, nor buy or sell anything. Female indentured servants were often raped without legal recourse. Masters often whipped and beat their indentured servants. One man testified: "I have seen an Overseer beat a Servant with a cane about the head till the blood has followed, for a fault that is not worth the speaking of...."
      WORK IN AMERICA: In the 1600s, most indentured servants were put to work in the tobacco fields of Virginia and Maryland. This was hard manual labor under the grueling hot summer sun, under which Europeans were not accustomed to working. Overseers were often cruel, beating the servants to make them work faster and harder.
      AFTER CONTRACT WAS COMPLETED: Although many masters craftily figure out ways to extend an indentured servant's bondage (through accusing the servant of stealing, impregnating a female indenture servant, etc.), most indentured servants who survived the first four to seven years in America were freed. The master was required (depending upon the rules of the colony) to provide his former servant with the following: clothing, two hoes, three barrels of corn, and fifty acres of land.
      http://www.teachervision.fen.com/slavery-us/resource/3848.html

      Delete
  17. The trouble with some whites is that they have this idea that all blacks when they were set free were lazy and didn't want to work because that is what the white master said about all those who left them high and dry because they said they could afford to pay them anything.. But they could stay on and help share in the planting in fields and gardens like before but when it came time to sell in the crop they wouldn't get any of the money because the master would have to take that as their cut for letting them stay there. Yea right. But what they hadn't counted on was the blacks learning to read, write, and count and they knew that could make better money elsewhere with their skills and that is what they did. The womens took in washing, drying, ironing and folding white folks cloths, cleaning white folks houses,cooking, keeping their childrens and being paid for it. Mens were not only field hands, but black smiths and getting paid for it. So they weren't lazy they were working and they were hard workers, they learn how to break horses and that earn good money as well. But the whites was still having a hard time getting their farm business going because they didn't have the field hands they needed to get the work done and they didn't want to pay the blacks to do it, so they continue to callthem lazy. They would hire bounty hunters to kidnapped them and put them back into slavery but it didn't last long before the black would run away to safety. Even over the years, blacks worked hard to not get on government benefits and they did by doing the same thing those freed slaves did, clean house, became nannies, bulters, cooks, maids, then start getting education to get better jobs and the more education they got the better jobs they succeeded in getting. They still are not lazy or dumb.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You're right. Black people are neither dumb nor lazy. That's why the Crowns of Spain, Portugal, England, France, the Netherlands, and Denmark commissioned voyages to export millions upon millions of black people to build their fortunes.

      It just doesn't make any sense that the richest most powerful nations on the planet would spend so much time, expend so much money, fortify so many slave fortresses (or dungeons depending on your viewpoint), to spirit away the laziest people on the planet. That doesn't pass the smell test of time.

      No. The richest most powerful nations CHOSE black people as their laboring class, because they were the BEST laborers that money could buy. People like George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and even John C. Calhoun were wealth enough and famous enough to procure ANY laboring class, and who did they CHOOSE to invest their dollars in? You guessed it, black people.

      It took a war to separate them from their slaves. They knew a good thing when they had it. The Confederates didn't declare war to keep their lazy, stupid slaves in bondage. No, they were making money hand over fist with their black slaves, and they knew where their fortunes came from.

      We do ourselves a disservice by allowing others to define our history. The historic record is loud and clear. You can walk the Mall in Washington DC and clearly see the wealth of those tobacco planters with the Library of Congress, the White House, the Capitol ... or go to the Low Country of South Carolina and Savannah and witness the wealth of the rice planters ... or go to Liverpool, Glasgow, Manchester and see the wealth of the slave trade. The Bank of England, Lehman Brothers, Oxford University, Brown University, Lloyds of London, Harvard University, the University of Virginia, South Carolina University, etc. were ALL founded and sustained by the so called laziest people on the planet Earth. I'll slap the table and call bullshit every day of the week on that notion.

      Thanks for your comments.

      --Ron Edwards, US Slave Blog

      Delete
  18. http://www.youtube.com/BlackHistoryChannel1

    ReplyDelete
  19. MUSLIM GENOCIDE ON BLACK AFRICANS THROUGH MASS-CASTRATION

    Tidiane N´Diaye - Muslim Genocide on Black Africans Through Mass-Castration

    Explore the diversity of black-, white-, Jewish- and Arab ethno-centrism.

    Thanks to Universe Freedom for helping me out with the above translation.

    An Interview with Tidiane N´Diaye - Translated by Galliawatch

    In May 2001 the French Parliament passed a law that came to be called Taubira's Law after its sponsor, Christiane Taubira, the socialist deputy from Guiana. I posted an English translation of the law in May 2006. The first part of the law qualifies both slavery and the transatlantic and Indian Ocean slave trades as crimes against humanity, but does not mention the Arab-Muslim slave trade. Madame Taubira is quoted as having said in 2006 that the Negro slave trade practiced by Arab-Muslims must not be brought up too often so that "young Arabs do not bear on their shoulders all the weight of the heritage of Arab misdeeds."

    Now a book published in France by Gallimard, entitled Le Génocide Voilé ("Veiled Genocide"), exposes the cover-up of the Arab-Muslim slave trade, denounces the attempt to place all of the blame for slavery on the backs of Western countries, and goes so far as to qualify the atrocities committed by Arabs to Africans as "genocide."

    The author is Tidiane N'Diaye, a Senegalese Muslim, anthropologist, economist, and researcher at INSEE (National Institute of Economic Studies). The following interview with the author is posted at Evene.

    Le Génocide Voilé is an inquiry into the Arab-Muslim slave trade. Why should we be interested in this subject today?

    Because the misery, the poverty, the long demographic stagnation and the current developmental delays of the black continent, are not merely the consequences of the transatlantic slave trade, as many imagine. The transatlantic drain is well known and has been debated for decades. Studies and syntheses on this slave trade are legion. And yet, even though one cannot speak of degrees of horror or a monopoly on cruelty, it is possible to declare that the Negro slave trade and the wars provoked by the Arab-Muslims were, for black Africa through the centuries, much more devastating than the transatlantic trade. Likewise the Islamization of many Negro-African peoples and all that it engendered, such as jihad, were no less the source of innumerable implosions. But to this day, only the genocide of black peoples by the Arab-Muslim nations has not been clearly acknowledged by those who research the responsible parties. Even though this crime is historically, juridically and morally forbidden.

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  20. MUSLIM GENOCIDE ON BLACK AFRICANS THROUGH MASS-CASTRATION

    PART 2

    When did it begin and in what region(s)?

    In the 7th century A.D., the Arabs, having conquered Egypt, proceeded to enslave numerous peoples of Nubia, Somalia, Mozambique, and elsewhere, during the first Islamic expansion. The Nubians had been harshly dealt with in the fierce attacks by Arab forces. They defended themselves courageously, but faced with superior numbers and the determination of the soldiers of the jihad and the repeated assaults by Arab jihadists, the Nubians preferred to negotiate peace, concluding in 652 the treaty known as Bakht. This treaty committed the vanquished African monarch to turn over annually a supply of 360 captives to become slaves in the Arab-Muslim world. Thus it was that a large-scale Negro slave trade was for the first time invented by Arab-Muslims. I use the term Arab-Muslim because after the Bakht, this trade became trans-Saharan and Eastern, implicating more and more peoples and regions and extending far beyond the Arab world. The traders who took part were also Berbers from the Maghreb, Turks of the Ottoman Empire and Iranians, hence Persians. Many African captives were sold by the Arabs as far away as India, since the king of Bengal possessed about 8000 slaves in the 15th century. The majority of men deported at the start of this trade came from the population of Darfur. It all began there, and apparently it has never ceased.

    What were the specific forms and motivations of this slave trade compared with the transatlantic trade?

    In the Arab world - the Wahhabi system (Saudi Arabia) for example - did not favor economic and social development through the hard work of its inhabitants. It condemned them to an endless need for servile labor furnished by the Negro trade. Moreover, for an Arab of those times, a man is never poor so long as his neighbor possesses something. The Holy War came in handy, if you wanted to become rich. Since every believer had the obligation to lead a jihad, they said, it was imperative to subject and enslave the non-converted. They took the Koran abusively as a pretext to stage raids on their infidel neighbors, stripping them of all they possessed. And so it was that with a clear conscience and using methods that were convenient as well as blessed, most of these converted Arab tribes ended up not living from their own resources. Thus the permanence of the plague of the Negro slave trade and of Arab-Muslim slavery in Africa was due to the traditions of these peoples dating from a time when they could not, out of debauchery and laziness, do without servile men to infuse strength and new blood into them. For example, in the middle of the 19th century, one third of the population of Oman was African or of African origin. In Arab societies, Africans played a central role. They had no specific function but they took part in a great many common activities.

    You speak of massive castration...

    Before the terrible castrations there were first sudden raids and massacres. For example, in the Holy War led by that Sudanese Arab chieftain, a mystic, enlightened, who considered himself a Mahdi (descendant of the Prophet), the whole of Sudan from the ocean to Egypt, taking in all the plateaux of Africa - from the Nile to the Zambezi - was subject to manhunts and the sale of captives. This space was twice the size of Europe, and certain explorers estimated its population to be around 100 million in the the 19th century. To have an idea of the evil, you must realize that these same observers stated that to hunt down and carry off 500,000 individuals, it was necessary to kill almost two million others (who resisted or tried to flee). So if births had ceased at the time, then, in less than a half-century, the interior of Africa would be nothing but a desolate wasteland today.

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  21. MUSLIM GENOCIDE ON BLACK AFRICANS THROUGH MASS-CASTRATION


    PART 3

    You also speak of genocide. Do you think there was a desire to annihilate the African Negro populations?

    I do indeed find the word "genocide" suitable for this unprecedented enterprise. It must be stated that the disdain of the Arabs towards Africans was also a catalyst. The famous Arab historian of the 14th century, Ibn-Khaldum, wrote: "The only people who accept slavery are the Negroes, because of an inferior degree of humanity, their place being closer to the level of animals." The question then was: how to see to it that these "animals" did not reproduce in Arab-Muslim lands. For from the outset of the slave trade, the traders wanted to prevent them from becoming rooted. Since there was nothing metaphysical about it, castration appeared to be a practical solution. And so, in this effort to abase human beings, if the Arabs sent most black women to harems, they mutilated the men, using rudimentary procedures that caused a terrifying mortality. The figures on this slave trade are quite simply harrowing. (...)

    In the second part of the interview, of which I will quote one excerpt only, he discusses critically the work of Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, who also exposed the Arab-Muslim slave trade. He comments on the current situation in Darfur and reveals the truth about Zulu hero Chaka Zulu. His most interesting remarks deal with what he sees as the Stockholm syndrome African-style:

    Very numerous are those who would like to see the Arab-Muslim slave trade forever veiled in oblivion, often in the name of a certain religious, or even ideological solidarity. It is in fact a virtual pact signed and sealed between the descendants of the victims and those of the executioners, that leads to this denial. Because in this sort of "Stockholm syndrome African-style," all of these fine people agree to place everything on the shoulders of the West. The selective silence surrounding the Arab-Muslim crimes against black peoples and this effort to minimize it, so as to better point the projectors solely at the transatlantic trade, is a cement being used to bring about a fusion of Arabs and Negro-African peoples - who have long been " fellow victims" of Western colonialism. That Arab-Muslim writers and other intellectuals attempt to make even the simplest memory of this infamy disappear, as if it had never existed, is easily understood.

    On the other hand, what is harder to grasp is the attitude of many researchers, and even of African Americans who are converting more and more to Islam. This attitude is not always healthy and is strongly influenced by a sort of self-censorship. As if evoking the slave trading past of Arab-Muslims is in some way tantamount to minimizing the transatlantic trade. (...)

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  22. THE HISTORY OF IRISH SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAS

    "There is nothing more frightening than active ignorance." -- Goethe

    As Shameful As Black Slavery

    The Irish in Colonial America were considered
    "Niggers Turned Inside Out"

    "Negro slavery was efficiently established in colonial America because Black slaves were governed, organized and controlled by the structures and organization that were first used to enslave and control Whites. Black slaves were 'late comers fitted into a system already developed.'"
    (Michael Hoffman, They Were White and They Were Slaves and Ulrich B. Phillips, Life and Labor in the Old South, pp. 25, 26)
    Irish Slave Facts
    The Irish slave trade began when James II sold 30,000 Irish prisoners as slaves to the New World. His Proclamation of 1625 required Irish political prisoners be sent overseas and sold to English settlers in the West Indies.
    By the mid 1600s, the Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat (70% of the total population of Montserrat were Irish slaves at this time).
    From 1641 to 1652, over 500,000 Irish were killed by the English and over 300,000 were sold as slaves.
    Ireland's population fell from about 1,500,000 to 600,000 in one single decade.
    During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and 14 were forcibly taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies, Virginia and New England. Another 52,000 Irish (mostly women and children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia while 30,000 Irish men were sold to the highest bidder.
    In 1656, Oliver Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and sold as slaves to English settlers.
    African slaves were very expensive (50 Sterling), had to be transported long distances and paid for not only in Africa but in the New World. Irish slaves were cheap (no more than 5 Sterling) and most often were either kidnapped from Ireland, prisoners or forcibly removed. They could be worked to death, whipped or branded without it being a crime. Many, many times they were beat to death and while the death of an Irish slave was a monetary setback, it was far cheaper than the death of an expensive African. Therefore, African slaves were treated much better in Colonial America.
    The importation of Irish slaves continued well into the eighteenth century, long after the importation of African slaves became the norm. Records state that after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America and Australia.
    Irish slavery didn't end until Britain decided to end slavery in 1839 and stopped transporting slaves.
    The enactment of 1652 in the British Isles:
    "it may be lawful for two or more justices of the peace within any county, citty or towne, corporate belonging to the commonwealth to from tyme to tyme by warrant cause to be apprehended, seized on and detained all and every person or persons that shall be found begging and vagrant.. in any towne, parish or place to be conveyed into the Port of London, or unto any other port from where such person or persons may be shipped into a forraign collonie or plantation."

    The judges of Edinburgh Scotland during the years 1662-1665 ordered the enslavement and shipment to the colonies a large number of rogues and others who made life unpleasant for the British upper class. (Register for the Privy Council of Scotland, third series, vol. 1, p 181, vol. 2, p 101).
    Historian Oscar Handlin writes that in colonial America, White "servants (slaves) could be bartered for profit, sold to the highest bidder for the unpaid debts of their masters, and otherwise transferred like movable goods or chattels...The condition of the first Negroes in the continental English colonies must be viewed within the perspective of these conceptions and realities of White Servitude."
    (Michael A Hoffman, They Were White and They Were Slaves, p. 39)

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  23. THE HISTORY OF IRISH SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAS


    PART 2

    The politically correct media and education system would have you believe that the evil White man enslaved the negro and only Whites have responsibility for slavery
    They would also have you believe that:
    Only Negroes were the victims of slavery
    The facts are
    Negroes enslaved Whites, Negroes and Indians
    Indians enslaved Whites, Indians and Negroes
    Whites enslaved Whites, Negroes and Indians
    White slaves were owned by Negroes and Indians to such an extent in the South that the Virginia Assembly passed a law against the practice!
    "It is enacted that noe negro or Indian though baptized and enjoyned their owne ffreedome shall be capable of any such purchase of christians..."
    Christians meant Whites
    Statutes of the Virginia Assembly, Vol. 2, pp. 280-81)
    White Christians were sold on the auction block, in chains
    White Christians had their teeth checked and their muscles probed, like cattle
    White Christians were stripped naked for all the world to see
    White Christian families were split apart
    These horrific deeds did not just happen to Africans
    These horrific deeds happened to White Christian slaves to satisfy the "need for labor" on the plantations and in the factories of the elite, White and black
    It's estimated that in the colonial period of the United States, up to the Revolutionary war, at least half (some say two thirds) of all the Whites that entered Colonial America were slaves
    Some say that the Blacks were slaves, the Whites were servants. Historical documents proves this to be false
    In the original documents of the White merchants who transported negroes from Africa for the slave markets the Blacks were called servants
    "...one notes that the Company of Royal Adventurers referred to their cargo as 'Negers,' 'Negro-servants,' 'servants...from Africa..."
    (Handlin. p. 205)
    This proves that slavery was not racist
    Slavery was classist
    Slavery was economic
    In the 1600s slaves of both races were called servants
    Elite Whites, and some blacks, would enslave whoever they could get, regardless of race
    Oscar Handlin says that "Through the first three-quarters of the 17th century, the Negroes, even in the South, were not numerous...They came into a society in which a large part of the White population was to some degree unfree...The Negroes lack of freedom was not unusual. These Black newcomers, like so many others, were accepted, bought and held, as kinds of servants."
    He goes on to say that the desire for cheap labor caused the elite merchants and land owners to enslave not only the negroes but their own White kindred as well
    Blacks were much more expensive than Whites
    Therefore, Whites were mistreated more often than blacks
    During the Colonial period, Whites did the harder work, such as digging ditches, clearing land, and felling trees
    The frontier demands for this kind of heavy manual labor was satisfied primarily by White slaves
    As late as 1669 those who had large scale plantations were manning them with White slaves, not negroes
    That's the way it was done in the mother country, Great Britain!
    In 1670 the Governor of Virginia said that he had 2000 Negro and 6000 White slaves
    Hundreds of thousands of Whites in colonial America were owned outright by their masters and died in slavery
    Even the blacks knew this. If they were made to work too hard they accused their masters of
    "treating them like the Irish"
    Plantation slavery, the final stage of slavery in the United States, does not represent the entire history of slavery in this country
    This is historical fact
    This is the Heritage of America
    This is not taught in schools
    Shame -- Shame -- Shame!
    The Forgotten Slaves: Whites in Servitude in Early America and Industrial Britain
    White children enslaved in a mine in 19th century England. The two on the left are virtually naked. Children of both sexes worked in this manner.
    by Michael A. Hoffman II ©Copyright 1999. All Rights Reserved

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  24. THE FORGOTTEN SLAVES:
    WHITES IN SERVITUDE IN EARLY AMERICA & INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND

    White children enslaved in a mine in 19th century England. The two on the left are virtually naked. Children of both sexes worked in this manner.
    by Michael A. Hoffman II ©Copyright 1999. All Rights Reserved
    Two years ago, Prime Minister Paul Keating of Australia refused to show "proper respect" to Britain's Queen Elizabeth II during her state visit. In response, Terry Dicks, a Conservative member of the British Parliament said, "It's a country of ex-convicts, so we should not be surprised by the rudeness of their prime minister."
    A slur such as this would be considered unthinkable if it were uttered against any other class or race of people except the descendants of White slavery. Dicks' remark is not only offensive, it is ignorant and false. Most of Australia's "convicts" were shipped into servitude for such "crimes" as stealing seven yards of lace, cutting trees on an aristocrat's estate or poaching sheep to feed a starving family.
    The arrogant disregard for the holocaust visited upon the poor and working class Whites of Britain by the aristocracy continues in our time because the history of that epoch has been almost completely extirpated from our collective memory.
    When White servitude is acknowledged as having existed in America, it is almost always termed as temporary "indentured servitude" or part of the convict trade, which, after the Revolution of 1776, centered on Australia instead of America. The "convicts" transported to America under the 1723 Waltham Act, perhaps numbered 100,000.
    The indentured servants who served a tidy little period of 4 to 7 years polishing the master's silver and china and then taking their place in colonial high society, were a minuscule fraction of the great unsung hundreds of thousands of White slaves who were worked to death in this country from the early l7th century onward.
    Up to one-half of all the arrivals in the American colonies were Whites slaves and they were America's first slaves. These Whites were slaves for life, long before Blacks ever were. This slavery was even hereditary. White children born to White slaves were enslaved too.
    Whites were auctioned on the block with children sold and separated from their parents and wives sold and separated from their husbands. Free Black property owners strutted the streets of northern and southern American cities while White slaves were worked to death in the sugar mills of Barbados and Jamaica and the plantations of Virginia.
    The Establishment has created the misnomer of "indentured servitude" to explain away and minimize the fact of White slavery. But bound Whites in early America called themselves slaves. Nine-tenths of the White slavery in America was conducted without indentures of any kind but according to the so-called "custom of the country," as it was known, which was lifetime slavery administered by the White slave merchants themselves.
    In George Sandys laws for Virginia, Whites were enslaved "forever." The service of Whites bound to Berkeley's Hundred was deemed "perpetual." These accounts have been policed out of the much touted "standard reference works" such as Abbott Emerson Smith's laughable whitewash, Colonists in Bondage.
    I challenge any researcher to study 17th century colonial America, sifting the documents, the jargon and the statutes on both sides of the Atlantic and one will discover that White slavery was a far more extensive operation than Black enslavement. It is when we come to the 18th century that one begins to encounter more "servitude" on the basis of a contract of indenture. But even in that period there was kidnapping of Anglo-Saxons into slavery as well as convict slavery.

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  25. THE FORGOTTEN SLAVES:
    WHITES IN SERVITUDE IN EARLY AMERICA & INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND

    PART 2

    In 1855, Frederic Law Olmsted, the landscape architect who designed New York's Central Park, was in Alabama on a pleasure trip and saw bales of cotton being thrown from a considerable height into a cargo ship's hold. The men tossing the bales somewhat recklessly into the hold were Negroes, the men in the hold were Irish.
    Olmsted inquired about this to a shipworker. "Oh," said the worker, "the niggers are worth too much to be risked here; if the Paddies are knocked overboard or get their backs broke, nobody loses anything."
    Before British slavers traveled to Africa's western coast to buy Black slaves from African chieftains, they sold their own White working class kindred ("the surplus poor" as they were known) from the streets and towns of England, into slavery. Tens of thousands of these White slaves were kidnapped children. In fact the very origin of the word kidnapped is kid-nabbed, the stealing of White children for enslavement.
    According to the English Dictionary of the Underworld, under the heading kidnapper is the following definition: "A stealer of human beings, esp. of children; originally for exportation to the plantations of North America."
    The center of the trade in child-slaves was in the port cities of Britain and Scotland:
    "Press gangs in the hire of local merchants roamed the streets, seizing 'by force such boys as seemed proper subjects for the slave trade.' Children were driven in flocks through the town and confined for shipment in barns...So flagrant was the practice that people in the countryside about Aberdeen avoided bringing children into the city for fear they might be stolen; and so widespread was the collusion of merchants, shippers, suppliers and even magistrates that the man who exposed it was forced to recant and run out of town." (Van der Zee, Bound Over, p. 210).
    White slaves transported to the colonies suffered a staggering loss of life in the 17th and 18th century. During the voyage to America it was customary to keep the White slaves below deck for the entire nine to twelve week journey. A White slave would be confined to a hole not more than sixteen feet long, chained with 50 other men to a board, with padlocked collars around their necks. The weeks of confinement below deck in the ship's stifling hold often resulted in outbreaks of contagious disease which would sweep through the "cargo" of White "freight" chained in the bowels of the ship.
    Ships carrying White slaves to America often lost half their slaves to death. According to historian Sharon V. Salinger, "Scattered data reveal that the mortality for [White] servants at certain times equaled that for [Black] slaves in the 'middle passage,' and during other periods actually exceeded the death rate for [Black] slaves." Salinger reports a death rate of ten to twenty percent over the entire 18th century for Black slaves on board ships enroute to America compared with a death rate of 25% for White slaves enroute to America.
    Foster R. Dulles writing in Labor in America: A History, states that whether convicts, children 'spirited' from the countryside or political prisoners, White slaves "experienced discomforts and sufferings on their voyage across the Atlantic that paralleled the cruel hardships undergone by negro slaves on the notorious Middle Passage."
    Dulles says the Whites were "indiscriminately herded aboard the 'white guineamen,' often as many as 300 passengers on little vessels of not more than 200 tons burden--overcrowded, unsanitary...The mortality rate was sometimes as high as 50% and young children seldom survived the horrors of a voyage which might last anywhere from seven to twelve weeks."

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  26. THE FORGOTTEN SLAVES:
    WHITES IN SERVITUDE IN EARLY AMERICA & INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND

    PART 3

    Independent investigator A.B. Ellis in the Argosy writes concerning the transport of White slaves, "The human cargo, many of whom were still tormented by unhealed wounds, could not all lie down at once without lying on each other. They were never suffered to go on deck. The hatchway was constantly watched by sentinels armed with hangers and blunder busses. In the dungeons below all was darkness, stench, lamentation, disease and death."
    Marcus Jernegan describes the greed of the shipmasters which led to horrendous loss of life for White slaves transported to America:
    "The voyage over often repeated the horrors of the famous 'middle passage' of slavery fame. An average cargo was three hundred, but the shipmaster, for greater profit, would sometimes crowd as many as six hundred into a small vessel...The mortality under such circumstances was tremendous, sometimes more than half...Mittelberger (an eyewitness) says he saw thirty-two children thrown into the ocean during one voyage."
    "The mercantile firms, as importers of (White) servants, were not too careful about their treatment, as the more important purpose of the transaction was to get ships over to South Carolina which could carry local produce back to Europe. Consequently the Irish--as well as others--suffered greatly...
    "It was almost as if the British merchants had redirected their vessels from the African coast to the Irish coast, with the white servants coming over in much the same fashion as the African slaves." (Warren B. Smith, White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina).
    A study of the middle passage of White slaves was included in a Parliamentary Petition of 1659. It reported that White slaves were locked below deck for two weeks while the slaveship was still in port. Once under way, they were "all the way locked up under decks...amongst horses." They were chained from their legs to their necks.
    Those academics who insist that slavery is an exclusively Black racial condition forget or deliberately omit the fact that the word slave originally was a reference to Whites of East European origin - "Slavs."
    Moreover, in the 18th century in Britain and America, the Industrial Revolution spawned the factory system whose first laborers were miserably oppressed White children as young as six years of age. They were locked in the factories for sixteen hours a day and mangled by the primitive machinery. Hands and arms were regularly ripped to pieces. Little girls often had their hair caught in the machinery and were scalped from their foreheads to the back of their necks.
    White Children wounded and crippled in the factories were turned out without compensation of any kind and left to die of their injuries. Children late to work or who fell asleep were beaten with iron bars. Lest we imagine these horrors were limited to only the early years of the Industrial Revolution, eight and ten year old White children throughout America were hard at work in miserable factories and mines as late as 1920.
    Because of the rank prostitution, stupidity and cowardice of America's teachers and educational system, White youth are taught that Black slaves, Mexican peons and Chinese coolies built this country while the vast majority of the Whites lorded it over them with a lash in one hand and a mint julep in the other.
    The documentary record tells a very different story, however. When White Congressman David Wilmot authored the Wilmot Proviso to keep Black slaves out of the American West he did so, he said, to preserve that vast expanse of territory for "the sons of toil, my own race and color."

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  27. THE FORGOTTEN SLAVES:
    WHITES IN SERVITUDE IN EARLY AMERICA & INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND

    PART 4

    This is precisely what most White people in America were, "sons of toil," performing backbreaking labor such as few of us today can envision. They had no paternalistic welfare system; no Freedman's Bureau to coo sweet platitudes to them; no army of bleeding hearts to worry over their hardships. These Whites were the expendable frontline soldiers in the expansion of the American frontier. They won the country, felled the trees, cleared and planted the land.
    The wealthy, educated White elite in America are the sick heirs of what Charles Dickens in Bleak House termed "telescopic philanthropy"--the concern for the condition of distant peoples while the plight of kindred in one's own backyard are ignored.
    Today much of what we see on "Turner Television" and Pat Robertson's misnamed "Family Channel," are TV films depicting Blacks in chains, Blacks being whipped, Blacks oppressed. Nowhere can we find a cinematic chronicle of the Whites who were beaten and killed in White slavery. Four-fifths of the White slaves sent to Britain's sugar colonies in the West Indies did not survive their first year.
    Soldiers in the American Revolution and sailors impressed into the American navy received upwards of two hundred whiplashes for minor infractions. But no TV show lifts the shirt of these White yeoman to reveal the scars on their backs.
    The Establishment would rather weep over the poor persecuted Negroes, but leave the White working class "rednecks" and "crackers" (both of these terms of derision were first applied to White slaves), to live next door to the Blacks.
    Little has changed since the early 1800s when the men of property and station of the English Parliament outlawed Black slavery throughout the Empire. While this Parliament was in session to enact this law, ragged five year old White orphan boys, beaten, starved and whipped, were being forced up the chimneys of the English parliament, to clean them. Sometimes the chimney masonry collapsed on these boys. Other times they suffocated to death inside their narrow smoke channels.
    Long after Blacks were free throughout the British Empire, the British House of Lords refused to abolish chimney-sweeping by White children under the age of ten. The Lords contended that to do so would interfere with "property rights." The lives of the White children were not worth a farthing and were considered no subject for humanitarian concern.

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  28. THE FORGOTTEN SLAVES:
    WHITES IN SERVITUDE IN EARLY AMERICA & INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND

    PART 5

    The chronicle of White slavery in America comprises the dustiest shelf in the darkest corner of suppressed American history. Should the truth about that epoch ever emerge into the public consciousness of Americans, the whole basis for the swindle of "Affirmative action," "minority set-asides" and proposed "Reparations to African-Americans" will be swept away. The fact is, the White working people of this country owe no one. They are themselves the descendants, as Congressman Wilmot so aptly said, of "the sons of toil."
    There will only be racial peace when knowledge of radical historical truths are widespread and both sides negotiate from positions of strength and not from fantasies of White working class guilt and the uniqueness of Black suffering.
    Let it be said, in many cases Blacks in slavery had it better than poor Whites in the antebellum South. This is why there was such strong resistance to the Confederacy in the poverty-stricken areas of the mountain south, such as Winston County in Alabama and the Beech mountains of North Carolina. Those poor Whites could not imagine why any White laborer would want to die for the slave-owning plutocracy that more often than not, gave better care and attention to their Black servants than they did to the free white labor they scorned as "trash."
    To this day, the White ruling class denigrates the White poor and patronizes Blacks.
    If this seems admirable from the pathological viewpoint of Marxism or cosmopolitan liberalism, the Black and Third World "beneficiaries" of White ruling class "esteem" ought to consider what sort of "friends" they actually have.
    The Bible declares that the man who does not take care of his own family is "worse than an infidel." This also applies to one's racial kindred. The man who neglects his own children to care for yours has true love for neither.
    White, self-hating liberals and greed-head conservatives who claim to care for the "civil rights" of Black and Third World people, discard the working class of their own people on the garbage heap of history. When they are finished with their own they shall surely turn on others.
    Those who care for their own kind first are not practicing "hate" but kindness, which is the very root of the word.
    Michael A. Hoffman II is the author of "They Were White and They Were Slaves: The Untold History of the Enslavement of Whites in Early America and Industrial Britain"

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  29. CONDITIONS OF MANY EARLY IMMIGRANTS, INCLUDING CROSSLANDS

    "Indenture" is a term from English Common Law which, in the 17th century, generally meant: "under contract". Indentured servants (or laborers under contract) were commonplace in Colonial Virginia during that period. Historians estimate that:
    • About 70% of migrants from England who came between 1630-1660 were indentured servants;
    • Most indentured servants were young, 15-25, and single;
    • Males servants outnumbered female servants;
    • Indentures were typically 4-7 years in duration;
    • Trade in indentured servants peaked about 1620-1680, but lasted until the 1770s.
    According to the Historians:
    Indentured servants were often scorned in their time as beggars and riffraff. In reality they probably represented a broad spectrum of working people from English society. They included the desperately poor (the majority) and the middle class. Most of them were probably farmers or unskilled laborers during the early years.
    Tobacco quickly became the principal source of cash in early Virginia and tobacco farming demanded a large and ever expanding work force, a workforce which could not be provided from within the colony. Ergo, English entrepreneurs were encouraged to recruit large numbers of laborers from England to the tobacco plantations. Men, women, and sometimes children signed a contract with a "master" to serve a term of 4 to 7 years. In exchange for their service, indentured servants received their passage paid from England, and food, clothing and shelter once they arrived in the colony.
    When the contract had expired, the servant was paid "freedom dues" and allowed to leave the plantation. Freedom dues usually consisted of corn, tools and clothing.
    During the time of his/her indenture, a servant was considered his master's personal property and the servant's contract could be bartered, inherited or assigned. While a servant, a person could not marry or have children. A master's permission was needed to leave the plantation, to perform work for someone else, or to receive money for personal use. An "unruly" servant was punished by whipping for improper behavior.
    Labor was hard and living conditions were generally harsh for indentured servants. Many servants had difficulty adjusting to the climate and native diseases of southeast (Tidewater) Virginia, and many servants did not live to receive their freedom. Runaway servants, of which there were many, were punished by increasing their time of service if they were captured.
    Conditions changed in Virginia, however, and, by 1700, recruitment of tobacco plantation labor from England was no longer as important due to the increasing availability of African slaves for the harsh plantation work. At that point, English artisans and skilled labor became important and the nature of the indentured servant trade from England changed. Later in the 1700s, England transported convicts, both men and women, to Virginia to be sold to plantation owners as another form of labor.
    http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~crosslin/records/va/immigrants3.html

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