Clarence McKenzie, the twelve year-old drummer boy of Company D, 13th New York State Militia regiment, died after suffering a gunshot wound on June 11, 1861. He was the first Brooklyn casualty of the Civil War.
The United States was advancing economically. In 1800 it took thirty days to reach New York from New Orleans; in 1830 it took only fifteen days. The world's first journey by steam-powered boat took place in 1807 on the Hudson River from New York to Albany -- 150 miles in 32 hours.
In the northeast, water powered flour milling and textile manufacturing was changing over to steam power, the mills employing women and children from the age of seven -- a leftover from farming culture, which used child labor extensively. The middleclass saw itself as above the common laborer and perpetuated its values in education, thrift, sobriety and hard work. And they were increasing their consumption of goods. Republicans -- the party of Jefferson -- were becoming as interested in commercial enterprise and manufacturing as Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists had been.
Before the 1800s, growers in the southern states had tobacco, rice and indigo as major crops. Tobacco farming and horse breeding spread to Kentucky, and tobacco farming spread also to Tennessee. Sugar was grown in Louisiana, but in Mississippi and Alabama, with their rich soils and warm climate, cotton growing dominated -- cotton needing a growing season of 200 frost-free days.
Civil War and Slavery in New York State